Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit

Dyslexia or Reading Disability (RD)( adapted from the Learning Disabilities Association of America; See

Signs and Symptoms

  • May have reversals: b for d, p for q or inversions: u for n, w for m
  • Has difficulty negotiating around school campus, neighborhood, shopping malls, etc.
  • Complains eyes hurt and itch, rubs eyes, complains print blurs while reading
  • Turns head when reading across page or holds paper at odd angles
  • Closes one eye while working, may yawn while reading
  • Cannot copy accurately
  • Loses place frequently
  • Does not recognize an object/word if only part of it is shown
  • Holds pencil too tightly; often breaks pencil point/crayons
  • Struggles to cut or paste
  • Misaligns letters; may have messy papers, which can include letters colliding, irregular spacing, letters not on line


  • Avoid focusing on stylistic/neatness aspects of handwriting
  • Allow students to orally dictate creative stories
  • Provide alternative for written assignments
  • Suggest use of pencil grips and specially designed pencils and pens
  • Allow use of computer or word processor
  • Restrict copying tasks
  • Provide tracking tools: ruler, text windows
  • Use large print books
  • Plan to order or check out books on tape

General Discussion

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